uring the formation of the Reformed Episcopal Church, two bedrock documents were prepared and adopted. The first was the Declaration of Principles in 1873, and the second was the Articles of Religion in 1875. Both of these documents were printed in the Book of Common Prayer of the Reformed Episcopal Church for over 100 years, with their respective headings announcing their adoption dates.
It has become fashionable of late to claim, that in spite of the 100 years of printing in the BCP, the Thirty-five Articles of Religion were never really adopted, and the founders of the REC wanted to keep the Thirty-nine Articles. This claim is made even in the face of the High Church Oxford Movements assertions that the Thirty-nine Articles were compatible with the High Church movement, the very reason the founders of the REC were forced to leave the Anglican Communion (See Tract 90 by John H. Newman, a leader in the High Church Oxford Movement).
The framers of the Thirty-five Articles were careful to avoid the errors of the of the Elizabethan Compromisers, who reduced Archbishop Thomas Cranmers original 42 Articles of Religion by eliminating some of the more extreme Protestant statements of Cranmers version. [Shepherd, Massey Hamilton. The Oxford American Prayer Book Commentary, (New York, 1963) p.601]
In fact, the REC Founders such as Bishop George David Cummins and Dr. Benjamin Aycrigg did think they were adopting new Articles. Articles which presented a much more evangelical position on the authority of Scripture (Art. V of the Thirty-five vs. Art. VI of the Thirty-nine), denied the unscriptural doctrine of Apostolic Succession (Art. XXIV of the Thirty-five, vs. Art. XXII of the Thirty-nine). The Thirty-five Articles also keep faith with the Declaration of Principles by eliminating priests from the Articles of Religion, unlike the Thirty-nine (Art. XXXIII of the Thirty-five, vs. Art. XXXII and Art. XXXVI of the Thirty-nine).
How can we know the Founders were adopting a new statement of the Reformed faith? By their own words! Witness:
has been impossible for me to write to you since my last hurried note of
Thursday. Yesterday we had three sessionsmorning, afternoon, and
nightand are in the midst of the discussion of the articles. Only
about ten are passed, about two-thirds are yet to be discussed. . .
[A.M. Cummins (wife of Bp Cummins), Letter
home from Bishop George David Cummins, May 15, 1875, Memoir of George David
Cummins, D.D., ( Reformed Episcopal Rooms, 1878, Philadelphia, PA, Page
Articles of the Reformed Episcopal Church were then acted upon and ADOPTED as
they now stand." [Mrs. Annie Darling Price, A
History of the Formation and Growth of the Reformed Episcopal Church,
1873-1902, (James Armstrong, Printer and Publisher, Philadelphia, 1902), Page
. . .
Article I. to X. ADOPTED (pp.33-35). . .
Reformed Episcopal Church was founded, its Twenty-Fourth Article, which you
will find in your prayer book, and which I ask you carefully to read, declared
such a view of the ministry [Apostolic Succession] unscriptural, and
productive of great mischief. [Bishop
Charles Edward Cheney, S.T.D., What Reformed Episcopalians Believe
,Christian Education Committee of the Reformed Episcopal Church,
Articles of Religion as adopted by the founders of the Reformed Episcopal
Church are included on this page.
ARTICLES OF RELIGION
AS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL COUNCIL OF THE REFORMED EPISCOPAL CHURCH, ON THE EIGHTEENTH DAY OF MAY IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-FIVE
[Extract from the Minutes of the Third General Council of the Reformed Episcopal Church, held at Chicago, May 18, 1875]:
Whereas, This church has, in its Declaration of Principles, proclaimed its belief in the doctrines of grace substantially as they were set forth in the Thirty-nine Articles; therefore,
RESOLVED: As the sense of this Council, that the Articles reported by the Committee on Doctrine and Worship, and accepted at this Council, be and are hereby adopted, as containing substantially the great truths known as the "Doctrines of Grace."
RESOLVED: That the foregoing preamble and resolution be printed as
a Prefatory Note to the Articles of Religion.
Article I--Of the Holy Trinity
THERE is but one living and true God, who is a spirit,
everlasting; of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness; the Maker and Preserver
of all things, both visible and invisible. And in unity of this Godhead, there
be three Persons, of one substance, power, and eternity; the Father, the Son,
and the Holy Ghost.
Article II--Of the Word, or Son of God, which was made Very Man
THE Son, who is the Word of the Father, begotten from
everlasting of the Father, the very and eternal God, of one substance with the
Father, took man's nature in the womb of the blessed virgin of her substance:
so that two whole and perfect natures, that is to say, the Godhead and manhood,
were joined together in one Person, never to be divided, whereof is one Christ,
very God and very man; who truly suffered, was crucified, dead and buried, to
satisfy Divine justice, and to reconcile us to his Father, and to be a
sacrifice, not only for original sin, but also for actual sins of men.
Article III--Of the Resurrection of Christ, and His Second Coming
CHRIST did truly rise from death, and took again his body,
with flesh, bones, and all things appertaining to the perfection of man's
nature, wherewith he ascended into heaven, and there sitteth, our High Priest
and Advocate, at the right hand of the Father whence he will return to judge
the world in righteousness. This Second Coming is the blessed hope of the
Church. The heavens have received him, till the times of the restitution of all
things. To those who look for him he shall appear a second time without sin
unto salvation. Then shall he change the body of our humiliation that it may be
fashioned like unto his glorious body. He will take to himself his great power,
and shall reign till he have put all enemies under his feet.
Article IV--Of the Holy Ghost
THE Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the Son, is of one substance, majesty, and glory, with the Father and the Son, very and eternal God.
It is the work of the Holy Ghost to reprove and convince the world
of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment; to take of the things of Christ
and show them to men; to regenerate--making men willing, leading them to faith
in Christ, and forming Christ in them the hope of glory; to strengthen them
with might in their inner man, that Christ may dwell in their hearts by faith;
and to secure in them that walking in the ways of God which is called the Fruit
of the Spirit. The True Church is thus called out of the world, and is builded
together for an habitation of God, through the Spirit.
ALL Scripture is given by inspiration of God. Holy men of
God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost: Holy Scripture is therefore the
Word of God; not only does it contain the Oracles of God, but it is itself the
very Oracles of God. And hence it containeth all things necessary to salvation:
so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be
required of any man, that it should be believed as an article of faith, or be
thought requisite or necessary to salvation. In the name of the Holy Scripture
we do understand the canonical books of the Old and New Testament, viz.:
Of the Old Testament
Of the New Testament
The Book commonly called "The Apocrypha" is not a portion of God's
Word, and is not therefore to be read in churches, nor to be used in
establishing any doctrine.
Article VI--Of the Old Testament
THE Old Testament is not contrary to the New: for both in
the Old and New Testament everlasting life is offered to Mankind by Christ, who
is the only Mediator between God and Man, being both God and Man. Wherefore
they are not to be heard, which feign that the old Fathers did look only for
transitory promises; and although the Law given from God by Moses, as touching
Ceremonies and Rites, does not bind Christian men, nor the Civil precepts
thereof ought of necessity to be received in any commonwealth; yet
notwithstanding, as a rule of right living, no Christian man whatsoever is free
from the obedience of the Commandments which are called Moral.
Article VII--Of Original or Birth-sin
ORIGINAL sin standeth not in the following of Adam, as the
Pelagians do vainly talk; but it is the fault and corruption of the nature of
every man, that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam, whereby man
is wholly gone from original righteousness, and is of his own nature inclined
to evil, so that the flesh lusteth always contrary to the Spirit; and therefore
in every person born into this world, it deserveth God's condemnation. Men are,
as the Apostle speaks, "by nature the children of wrath." And this infection of
nature doth remain, yea, in them that are regenerated. And although there is no
condemnation for them that are in Christ Jesus, yet the Apostle doth confess,
that concupiscence or lust in such hath of itself the nature of sin.
Article VIII--Of Man's Condition by Nature
THE condition of man after the fall of Adam is such, that
he cannot turn and prepare himself, by his own natural strength and good works,
to faith, and calling upon God. Wherefore we have no power to do good works
pleasant and acceptable to God, without the grace of God by Christ first
inclining us, that we may have a good will, and working with us, when we have
that good will.
Article IX--Of Works before Justification
WORKS commonly called good before the grace of Christ and
the inspiration of his Spirit, have not the nature of obedience to God,
forasmuch as they spring not of Faith in Jesus Christ, neither do they make men
meet to deserve, or to receive grace.
Article X--Of Regeneration, or the New Birth
REGENERATION is the creative act of the Holy Ghost, whereby
he imparts to the soul a new spiritual life.
Article XI--Of Faith
THE faith which brings justification in simply the reliance or dependence on Christ which accept him as the sacrifice for our sins, and as our righteousness.
We may thus rely on Christ, either tremblingly or confidingly; but
in either case it is saving faith. If, though tremblingly, we rely on him in
his obedience for us unto death, instantly we come into union with him, and are
justified. If, however, we confidingly rely on him, then have we the comfort of
our justification. Simply by faith in Christ are we justified and saved
Article XII--Of the Justification of Man
WE are pardoned and accounted righteous before God, only
for the Merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, by Faith; and not for our
own Works or Deservings. He who knew no sin was made sin for us, that we might
be made the righteousness of God in him. He bare our sins in his own body. It
pleased our heavenly Father, of his infinite mercy, without any our desert or
deserving, to provide for us the most precious sacrifice of Christ, whereby our
ransom might be fully paid, the Law fulfilled, and his justice fully satisfied.
So that Christ is himself the righteousness of all them that truly do believe
in him. He for them paid their ransom, by his death. He for them fulfilled the
Law, in his life. So that now in him, and by him, every true Christian man may
be called a fulfiller of the Law. Wherefore, that we are justified by Faith
only, is a most wholesome doctrine, and very full of comfort.
Article XIII--Of Repentance
THE Repentance required by Scripture, is a change of mind toward God, and is the effect of the conviction of sin, wrought by the Holy Ghost.
The unconverted man may have a sense of remorse, or of shame and
self-reproach, and yet he may have neither a change of mind toward God, nor any
true sorrow; but when he accepts Christ as his Saviour, therein he manifests a
change of mind, and is in possession of repentance unto life. The sinner comes
to Christ through no labored process of repenting and sorrowing; but he comes
to Christ and repentance both at once, by means of simply believing. And ever
afterwards his repentance is deep and genuine in proportion as his faith is
simple and childlike.
Article XIV--Of the Sonship of Believers
BELIEVERS in Christ are born of God, through the regenerating power of his Spirit, and are partakers of the Divine nature; for if "that which is born of the flesh is flesh," so "that which is born of the Spirit is spirit."
And all who are thus born of God are sons of God, and joint heirs with Christ; and therefore, without distinction of name, brethren with Christ and with one another.
Article XV--Of Good Works
GOOD Works, which are the Fruits of Faith, and follow after Justification, are pleasing and acceptable to God in Christ, and do spring out, necessarily, of a true and lively Faith; insomuch that by them a lively faith may be as evidently known, as a tree discerned by the fruit. They who truly believe will seek to do the will of God, and they who do not thus seek are not to be accounted true believers.
Article XVI--Of Works of Supererogation
VOLUNTARY Works, besides, over and above God's
Commandments, which they call Works of Supererogation, cannot be taught without
arrogancy and impiety. For by them men do declare, that they do not only render
unto God as much as they are bound to do, but that they do more for his sake
than of bounden duty is required: Whereas Christ saith plainly, when ye have
done all that are commanded to you, say, We are unprofitable servants.
Article XVII--Salvation only in Christ
HOLY Scripture doth set out unto us the Name of Jesus
Christ only, whereby men must be saved. His was a finished work, and completely
sufficient. Without any merit or deserving on our part, he has secured to
believers in him pardon, acceptance, sonship, sanctification, redemption, and
eternal glory. Those who believe in him are in him complete. They are even now
justified and have a present salvation; though they may not at all times have
the sense of its possession.
Article XVIII--Of Election, Predestination, and Free Will
WHILE the Scriptures distinctly set forth the election, predestination, and calling of the people of God unto eternal life, as Christ saith: "All that the Father giveth me shall come to me;" they no less positively affirm man's free agency and responsibility, and that salvation is freely offered to all through Christ.
This Church, accordingly, simply affirms these doctrines as the
Word of God sets them forth, and submits them to the individual judgment of its
members, as taught by the Holy Spirit; strictly charging them that God
commandeth all men everywhere to repent, and that we can be saved only by faith
in Jesus Christ.
Article XIX--Of Sin after Conversion
THE grant of repentance is not to be denied to as fall into
sin after conversion: that is to say, after, by the quickening into life by the
Holy Ghost, they have turned to God by faith in Christ, and have been brought
into that change of mind which is repentance unto life. For after we have
received the Holy Ghost we may, through unbelief, carelessness, and
worldliness, fall into sin, and by the grace of God we may arise again, and
amend our lives; but every such fall is a grievous dishonor to our Lord, and a
sore injury to ourselves.
Article XX--Of Christ, alone without Sin
CHRIST, in the truth of our nature, was made like into us
in all things, sin only excepted, from which he was clearly void, both in his
flesh, and in his spirit. He came to be the Lamb without spot, who, by
sacrifice of himself, made once for ever, should take away the sin of
the world; and sin (as St. John saith) was not in him. But all we the rest,
although born again in Christ, yet offend in many things; and if we say we have
no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.
Article XXI--Of the Church
THE souls dispersed in all the world, who adhere to Christ by faith, who are partakers of the Holy Ghost, and worship the Father in spirit and in truth, are the body of Christ, the house of God, the flock of the Good Shepherd--the holy, universal Christian Church.
A visible Church of Christ is a congregation of believers in which the pure Word of God is preached, and Baptism and the Lord's Supper are duly ministered according to Christ's ordinance, in all those things that of necessity are requisite to the same. And those things are to be Considered requisite which the Lord himself did, he himself commanded, and his apostles confirmed.
As the Church of Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, and Rome have
erred: so also others have erred and may err, not only in their living and
manner of ceremonies, but also in matters of Faith.
Article XXII--Of the Authority of a Church
A CHURCH hath power to decree Ceremonies, and to
establish forms of worship, and laws for the government and discipline of its
members, and to declare its own faith; yet it is not lawful for any Church to
ordain or decide anything contrary to God's Word written, neither may it so
expound one place of Scripture, that it be repugnant to another. And as the
Church ought not to decree anything against the same, so besides the same ought
it not to enforce anything to be believed for necessary of salvation. The
Nicene Creed, as set forth in the Prayer-book of this Church, and that which is
commonly called the Apostles' Creed, ought to be received and believed; for
they may be proved by Holy Scripture.
Article XXIII--Of the Authority of General Councils
GENERAL Councils (forasmuch no they tip an assembly of men,
whereof all be not governed with the Spirit and Word of God), may err, and
sometimes have erred, not only in worldly matters, but also in things
pertaining to God. Wherefore things ordained by them as necessary to salvation
are not binding, as such, on a Christian man's conscience, unless it may be
proved that they be taken out of Holy Scripture. No law or authority can
override individual responsibility, and therefore the right of private
judgment: For the individual Christian, as Christ distinctly affirms, is to be
judged by the Word. The only Rule of faith is God's Word written.
Article XXIV--Of Ministering in the Congregation
THOSE who take upon themselves the office of public preaching, or ministering the ordinances in the congregation, should be lawfully called thereunto, and sent to execute the same. And those we ought to judge lawfully called and sent, which be moved to this work by the Holy Ghost, and are duly accredited by the Lord's People.
That doctrine of "Apostolic Succession," by which it is taught that the ministry of the Christian Church must be derived through a series of uninterrupted ordinations, whether by tactual succession or otherwise, and that without the same there can be no valid ministry, no Christian Church, and no due ministration of Baptism and the Lord's Supper, is wholly rejected as unscriptural, and productive of great mischief.
This Church values its historic ministry, but recognizes and
honors as equally valid the ministry of other Churches, even as God the Holy
Ghost has accompanied their work with demonstration and power.
Article XXV--Of the Sacraments
BY the word Sacrament this Church is to be understood as meaning only a symbol or sign divinely appointed.
Our Lord Jesus Christ hath knit together his people in a visible company by sacraments, most few in number, most easy to be kept, most excellent in signification, viz.: Baptism and the Lord's Supper.
Those five so-called Sacraments, that is to say, Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction, are not to be counted for Sacraments of the Gospel, being such as have grown partly of the corrupt following of the Apostles, partly are states of life allowed by the Scriptures; but yet have not like nature of Sacraments with Baptism and the Lord's Supper, for that they have not any visible sign or ceremony ordained of God.
And in such only as worthily receive Baptism and the Lord's Supper
are they of spiritual benefit and yet not that of the work wrought (ex opere
operato), as some men speak. Which word, as it is strange and unknown to
Holy Scripture, so it gendereth no godly, but a very superstitious sense. In
such as receive them rightly, faith is confirmed and grace increased by virtue
of prayer to God. But they that receive them unworthily, purchase to themselves
judgment, as St. Paul saith; while it is equally true that none, however
conscious of unworthiness, are debarred from receiving them, if they are
trusting in the Lord Jesus Christ alone for salvation.
Article XXVI--Of Baptism
BAPTISM represents the death of believers with Christ, and
their rising with him to newness of life. It is a sign of profession, whereby
they publicly declare their faith in born. It is intended as a sign of
regeneration or new birth. They that are baptized are grafted into the visible
Church; the promises of the forgiveness of sin and of adoption to be the sons
of God by the Holy Ghost, are visibly set forth. The Baptism of young children
is retained in this Church, as agreeable to ancient usage and not contrary to
Article XXVII--Of the Lord's Supper
THE Supper of the Lord is a memorial of our Redemption by Christ's death, for thereby we do show forth the Lord's death till he come. It is also a symbol of the soul's feeding upon Christ. And it is a sign of the communion that we should have with one another.
Transubstantiation (or the change of the substance of bread and wine into the very body and blood of Christ) in the Supper of the Lord cannot be proved by Holy Writ, is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a Sacrament, and hath given occasion to many and idolatrous superstitions.
Consubstantiation (or the doctrine that Christ is veiled under the unchanged bread and wine, arid that his very body and blood are present therein and separate the one from the other) is utterly without warrant of Scripture, is contradictory of the fact that Christ, being raised, dieth no more, and is productive, equally with transubstantiation, of idolatrous errors and practices.
We feed on Christ only through his Word and only by faith and prayer; and we feed on him, whether at our private devotions, or in our meditations, or on any occasion of public worship, or in the memorial symbolism of the Supper.
The elements of the Lord's Supper were not by Christ's ordinance
designed to be reserved, carried about, lifted up, or worshipped.
Article XXVIII--Of both Kinds
THE Cup of the Lord is not to be denied to any of
his people, for both the bread and the wine, by Christ's ordinance and
commandment, ought to be ministered to all Christian men alike.
Article XXIX--Of Unworthy Persons Ministering in the Congregation
ALTHOUGH in the visible Church the evil be ever mingled with the good, and sometimes the evil have chief authority in the ministration of the Word and ordinances; yet, forasmuch as they do not the same in their own name, but in Christ's, the believer is not deprived of the benefits of God's ordinances; because, though they be ministered by evil men, yet are they Christ's institution, and set forth his promise.
Nevertheless, it appertaineth to the discipline of the Church,
that inquiry be made of evil ministers, and that they be accused by those that
have knowledge of their offences: and finally, being found guilty, by just
judgment, be deposed
Article XXX--Of the One Oblation of Christ finished upon the Cross
THE Offering of Christ once made is that perfect
redemption, propitiation, and satisfaction for all the sins of the whole world,
both original and actual; and there is none other satisfaction for sin, but
that alone. And as there is only this one sacrifice in the Christian Church,
once made, never to be repeated, so there is but the one Priest, even Jesus
Christ, the Apostle and High Priest of our profession. Wherefore the sacrifices
of Masses, in the which it is commonly said that the Priest offers Christ for
the quick and the dead, for the remission of pain or guilt, or any
representations of the Lord's Supper as a sacrifice, are blasphemous tables and
Article XXXI--Of Certain Erroneous Doctrines and Practices
THE Romish doctrines concerning purgatory, penance, and
satisfaction, have no support from the Word of God, and are, besides,
contradictory of the completeness and sufficiency of the redemption in Christ
Jesus, of justification by faith, and of the sanctifying efficacy of God the
Holy Ghost Praying for the dead is man's tradition, vainly invented, and is in
violation of the express warnings of Almighty God to the careless and
unconverted. The adoration of relics and images, and the invocation of saints,
besides that they are grounded upon no warranty of Scripture, are idolatrous
practices, dishonoring to God, and compromising the mediatorship of Christ. It
is also repugnant to the Word of God, to have public prayer in the Church, or
to minister the ordinances, in a tongue not understood by the people.
Article XXXII--Of Confession and Absolution
PRIVATE confession of sins to a priest, commonly known as Auricular Confession, has no foundation In the Word of God, and is a human invention. It makes the professed penitent a slave to mere human authority, entangles him in endless scruples and perplexities, and opens the way to many immoralities.
If one sin against his fellow-man, the Scripture requires him to make confession to the offended party; and so, if one sin, and bring scandal upon the Christian Society of which he is a member. And Christians may often, with manifest profit, confess to one another their Sins against God, with a view solely to instruction, correction, guidance, and encouragement in righteousness. But in any and every case confession is still to be made to God; for all sins are committed against him, as well such as offend our fellow-man, as those that offend him alone.
Priestly absolution is a blasphemous usurpation of the sole prerogative of God. None can forgive sins as against God but God alone.
The blood of Jesus Christ only can cleanse us from our Sins, and
always we obtain forgiveness directly from God, whenever by faith in that blood
we approach him with our confessions and prayers.
Article XXXIII--Of the Marriage of Ministers
CHRISTIAN Ministers are not commanded by God's Law either
to vow the estate of single life, or to abstain from marriage; therefore it is
lawful for them, as for all other Christian men, to marry at their own
Article XXXIV--Of the Power of the Civil Authority
THE power of the Civil Magistrate extendeth to all men, as
well Ministers as People, in all things temporal; but hath no authority in
things purely spiritual. And we hold it to be the duty of all men who are
professors of the Gospel, to pay respectful obedience to the civil authority,
regularly and legitimately constituted.
Article XXXV--Of Christian Men's Goods
THE riches and goods of Christian men are not common, but their own, to be controlled and used according to their Christian judgment. Every man ought, of such things as he possesseth, liberally to give alms to the poor, according to his ability; and as a steward of God, he should use his means and influence in promoting the cause of truth and righteousness, to the glory of God.